[Alt-photo] the alt family tree

Christina Z. Anderson christinazanderson at gmail.com
Fri Aug 4 17:05:04 UTC 2017

OK, so far I have this ROUGH, alphabetical UNEDITED compilation of key texts and then a starting list of alt practitioners. And I truly mean unedited. For anyone who is interested…I’ve placed all stories to date in the list (I hope I didn’t miss any).
So although I am not sure where to go with this, at least it’s in a tidy list.I do think that some sort of mapping software is the ultimate way to go like SPE must have done. 
I have a list of 600 names from the alt list that I’ve tracked over the years; I bet there are lots more not on there.
With 22,000 people on alternative photography.com’s FB page suffice it to say alt is burgeoning and it would be hard to track it in present day, but the foundation had to have been small.
Now off to enjoy the sun.



1.              Airey, Theresa. Creative Photo Printmaking. New York: Amphoto Books, 1997.

2.              Anchell, Steve. The Darkroom Cookbook, 3rd ed. Burlington Massachusetts: Focal Press, 2008; 4th ed. New York City: Routledge, 2016.

3.              Anderson, Christina Z: saw my first alt prints in 1995 at Montana State University; decided to major in photography after seeing them. 1998 first alt class taught by Rudi Dietrich at Montana State University (gum, salt, pt/pd, vdb, cyanotype). 1999 APIS, 1999 alt list. Taught bw experimental alt 2001-3, 2003-5 grad school under Sam Wang where I met Sandy King and Mark Nelson. 2005 on taught alt and experimental at MSU.

4.              Anderson, Paul L. The technique of pictorial photography - Paul L. Anderson - 1939
Arentz, Dick. Platinum & Palladium Printing, 2nd ed. Boston: Focal Press, 2005.

5.              Arnow, Jan. Handbook of Alternative Photographic Processes. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1982.

6.              Baird, Darryl: I think my first influence was gelatin-silver multi-printing in a darkroom. A professor (Don Pasquella) at SMU's broadcast-film school taught photo courses and showed us a print he did combining images from different negatives that impressed me greatly. Next came the discovery of Jerry Uelsmann's work from volunteering at a gallery in Dallas, and later Todd Walker's gum prints at the same gallery, which also ran workshops with exhibiting artists (Texas Center for Photographic Studies). I was really hooked by then, but knew that I had a lot to learn. Somehow during this time (1970s) I saw Bea nettles work. I ordered a Kwik-Print kit, a Chuck Swedlund book on making negatives from Light Impressions, and taught myself the process. I attended a Friends of Photography workshop (1976) in Tucson where I met and learned from Ellen Land-Weber who was making color prints from a copy machine that she managed to register in the machine for multiple printing layers on art paper... beautiful work, and again I was in love with a new process/idea. I made a copier-collage book that week... bookmaking was an area I would revive years later when I went back to grad school in the 1990s. I showed Kwik-Prints once at a Allen Street (local photo gallery) with a photographer friend, Chip Pankey, who did platinum prints. I learned about Bostick and Sullivan from him. Then Pagemaker came out and promised (advertised) the capability of making four-color separations on a computer. I began to scan elements to make negatives for Kwik-Print. Life intervened and I dropped off the planet for about a decade. ;) I started grad school in 1994 in an aesthetics studies program, but left two years later to get my MFA at UNT (North Texas). The program allowed doing work at one of the 3 universities in north TX, which included Texas Womens University where I learned most of the other processes -- cyanotype, van-dyke, gum, and book making from Susan k Grant. That was the icing on the cake for me and I've modeled my alt-process teaching after hers. Those were really great days, and were followed by getting to start the program at the University of Michigan-Flint campus, which had (and still has) a required alt class. All in all though, I think my single, most formative learning has come from this list. Ever encounter at the Alt-process list in the 1990s was like dropping into a library and getting the low-down on the "good" books, techniques, and (most importantly) problem-solving. It's a long list of names, but the community gave freely, and often forcefully, of their experience and successes. 

7.              Barnes, Martin.            Shadow-Catchers: Camera-less Photography. New York: Merrell Publishers, 2010.

8.              Barnier, John. Coming Into Focus, a Step by Step Guide to Alternative Photographic Printing Processes. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 2000.
9.              Bauer, Jorj: The Internet is definitely a big part of my alt photo lineage. I'd done some sun prints and basic cyanotype work as a kid in the 80s. All stuff from Edmund Scientific, I'd bet. My grandfather - a physiologist doing research for the Navy - was always getting me great stuff from them. Around 2004, I decided I wanted to get deeper in to photography; the journey led me back to film around 2006, at which point I was reading a lot about various developer formulae on the 'net. Along the way I read about homemade emulsions, which let me to alt printing. I experimented heavily with kallitypes, cyanotypes, gum, and casein. (Which makes me think I've been doing it for about a decade now? Sheesh, seems like yesterday.) Salt, platinum/palladium, Chibatype, and probably others along the way. Somewhere in there I decided I wanted to print on glass and spent most of a year working out how to make that happen the way I wanted.A lot of the core information came from random web pages; the James Book of Alt Processes; Dick Stevens' Making Kallitypes; APUG; this list; youtube videos. I'm a learn-by-doing kinda guy so all of those were details that lead me back to my lab to figure out how they all work together. I don't learn well in class settings unless I'm already knee deep in the topic. After "figuring out" glass casein prints - probably 5 or 6 years in to my alt-photo experimentation - I decided to attend a seminar on gum prints to see if any of it translated back to glass. Scott McMahon, at Basho in Philly. (Scott studied under Sarah Van Keuren at University of the Arts in Philly, if I recall correctly.)
Scott's a fine guy and I picked his brain for a couple days. He fixed up my paper sizing technique while I compared all of his "about this much goop with that much glop" ratios to the weights and volumes from my own notes. Ultimately I took away from this that you can do just about anything with gum and it will work, for some definition of "work"...

10.           Blacklow, Laura. New Dimensions in Photo Processes, a Step by Step Manual for Alternative Techniques, 4th ed. Massachusetts: Focal Press, 2007.
11.           Bloemhof, Rowan (internet, Sandy King and Phil Schwartz, Katharine Thayer) As a relatively young 'member' of the alt process community I thought it might be interesting to share my perspective. About 4 years ago when I was 21 I started taking up analog photography, and really enjoying the whole physical approach to photography that it offered. On this I was mostly instructed by my father whose dark room equipment I 'inherited', at some point he mentioned this obscure printing process called gum bichromates, showing me a little instructional flyer he once received at a conference some 30 years earlier. I was instantly fascinated and decided to give it a try, i obtained all the materials and started to experiment with laser printed negatives. Much to my dismay I found it much more complicated and hard than I imagined. So I started to do more research online and stumbled across the writings of the late Katherine Thayer. It were her instructions that helped me get the results I needed to push on. Sadly I couldn't find any local teachers or people offering workshops on any alternative process. And financially it would have been impossible for me to visit the states to participate in workshops. So I had to make due with whatever I could find on the internet. So in essence it were the articles written by people like you, Katherine Thayer and Mike Ware that allowed me to learn a range of processes. Also the help I received from Philip Schwartz and Sandy King on the carbon printing forum was phenomenal. Anyway although I cannot offer any names you might otherwise miss in your family tree, I did want to take this opportunity to express my gratitude for the warm and welcoming way in which everyone here invites newcomers like me to learn the ropes. And hopefully one day pass on that knowledge to a next generation. I have participated in many internet communities over the years, but none as cordial as that of the alt photo community.
12.           Bloomfield, Diana
13.           Brandenburg, Kees: My start with alt printing, more specific gum, was around 1988/89 after finding the two Darkroom books by Lustrum Press (with alt examples) and of course (!) Crawford's “The Keepers of Light”. That start year was a relevant one 1989 - 150 years after 1839, Daguerre and Talbot. A lot of photo magazines wrote about those early years and in the slip stream there was a reviving focus on techniques from the past. At that time I was teaching photography at CREA, creative workshop division of the Amsterdam University. The courses I gave were not alt, but we did a lot of darkroom then with shooting, processing and printing B&W. When I organized my first experimental Gum workshop it was an immediate success. At the exhibition three gum prints were stolen! In 1994 my wife (textile designer) our son (two and a half then) and I moved from Amsterdam to Middelburg, capital of the province of Zeeland where we looked for more space to live and work and found a big studio. I also started to concentrate on photoconservation and wrote a preliminary photo conservation report for the Provincial Archive of Zeeland. I started at the same time with alt. workshops, as an independent artist and teacher, and I never stopped ;). Around 1995/96 I found ‘the list' and got me a simple second hand mac. My first computer! Connected the little machine immediately with the internet (33.6k dial-up!) to get in touch with ‘the rest of the world’! Wow, what a revelation finding all that available knowledge and people… In 1997 I visited APIS in Bath, organized by Terry King at the Royal Photographic Society and met many, many list members in real life! There’s a large tradition (in the Netherlands) that started at the end of the 19th century and also in the 20's and 30’s both amateur and professional. The archives of the Leiden university have a large study collection with alt prints from those years and after. The collection can be viewed at the reading room and curator Maartje van de Heuvel regularly organizes exhibitions. Artists like Harm Botman, Helena van der Kraan and many others worked with gum, cyano and other techniques.. Among the more contemporary artists I should also mention Witho Worms who is an excellent carbon printer. And since a few years we have had an enormous outbreak of wet collodion! There is a revival going on among art school students, and workshops. i have been in contact with and advising many throughout the years. For me personally several occasions in the past were important: Being able to have my first personal show in 1987 (BW baryta) in France at the Rencontres Photographique in Lorient, Bretagne, followed by another show in 1989 in Arles at the off-festival scene organized by a group of former students from the Arles Photo School. It was in Lorient where I met several pro printers who worked for well knowns photographers. It was an eye opener: talking with people who only concentrate on high quality hand printing! There i also saw platinum, gum and Fresson prints, and met the people behind them, and I saw absolutely stunning B&W baryta prints! In Arles I met many photographers, it was simply great to be there and be part of it…In 1995 and 1997 the Naarden Photofestival in the Netherlands organized demonstrations of alt. printing. i was asked in both occasions to show my way of gum printing. Other people showing there were: Richard Farber, who lived in the Hague at that time, showing carbon and carbro, Roger Kockaerts, platinum, Mieke Bijleveld, heliogravure, Jan van Leeuwen cyanotype and kallitype, Michiel Kort, photorestauration and salt, Peter Bersch, daguerreotype. With a selection of these people and some others we continued to have regular alt. meetings on various locations in the Netherlands.  With Richard Farber I had long phone calls while he worked on his book mostly about bromoil. In 1995 I also met a group of alt. printers at an exhibition in Dordrecht. Among them was Theo de Rijke who worked at the royal academy of art in the Hague where he introduced these techniques to students. He also organized a show in the academy where i participated with gum prints. With the same group we where at a show in Genk Belgium in 1997 organized by Eddy Willems. There I also met Jean Jansiss and talked with him about his way of printing ‘gum' with Terre de Cassel and PVA glue. I should not forget to mention my first little mac! It was followed by several newer and faster machines and i discovered the world of digital imaging, high quality (B&W) printing and at a very early stage I started with digital negatives. As I love tinkering with photographic processes i enjoyed the technical side of digital world and computers. It was fantastic to print B&W with the first Piezography BW plugin, very quickly followed by QTR which was still a very crude command line tool in those early days. In more recent times i concentrated on carbon printing and on techniques that avoid dichromates. I call them Zerochrome techniques. For now they consist of : casein, carbon, oil printing. It all started with the Chiba Print thesis by Halvor Björngård and regular contact with Halvor. Chiba printing is done with ferric salts. Later I concentrated on working with diazidostilbene (DAS). I am very grateful for the help I got from Charles Berger who revealed a lot of secrets about printing with DAS and ultrastable. I also have an ongoing and very pleasant e-mail contact with Stig Gustafsson from Finland who was very generous in helping me with all kinds of knowledge and materials. He has even sent me some original ultrastable tissue…to reverse engineer (sorry Charles) In carbon i try to further elaborate the technique, i started with dichromates followed by DAS. I have also worked, since 2011, with dutch photographer Erwin Olaf who spent many weeks here in the studio while we worked on his series Berlin, Joods and some self portraits in carbon who were on show in New York, London, Paris and Amsterdam.  I consider myself as a pigment/colloid printer in the first place. I started with gum and bromoil, discoverd cyano, kalli- and slt/albumen, and now mainly work with carbon. i recently discovered polymergravure. Even bought a beautiful press for it…Remarkable thing to notice after all those workshop years: alt. workshops keep attracting people from all over the Netherlands and abroad, Belgium, Germany, UK. And it’s still great fun and an honour to have them here. –k PS  I should not forget it’s still a pleasure to be your host, maintaining this list since 2009 together with Gord. How old fashioned can a mailing list be these days, but what an excellent signal to noise ratio we have...

14.           Brewer , Johan. 1998 The Keepers of Light like many of you; first attempt gum from a 5x4 film negative that was under-exposed by 1/2 stop but the print was fantastic, I still have it. For the next six months could I make another one? No! Then slowly gum started to work. I think this was partly due to keeping detailed notes and printing in a more holistic way. From there I tried several other processes in Crawford but it was always gum that I liked the best. I then found Skopick 2nd ed and fine tuned my gum practice. During the early 2000's I was a fairly active member on APUG as was involved in several print exchanges and wanted to try platinum/palladium printing. On APUG was another person in the UK, Carl Radford who was also interested in Pt/Pd. Carl organised a workshop around 2008 I think with Kerik who flew over to the UK with his family. All of us on the workshop stayed at Carl's house in Glasgow. The evening before the workshop Kerik displayed some of his stunning Pt/Pd prints from both film and digital negatives. In amongst the prints Kerik was showing was a tintype. None of us on the workshop had ever seen anything like this so Kerik returned the following year to teach wetplate....I joined the list around 1999 and The European Traveling Portfolio early 2000's.

15.           Buffaloe, Ed

16.           Bunnell, Peter, editor. Nonsilver Printing Processes. NY: Arno Press, 1973.
17.           Burkholder, Dan

18.           Busselle, Julien

19.           Choulle, Simone (daguerreotype)

20.           Clerc, L. P. La Technique Photographique – 1947

21.           Cordier, Pierre.            Le chimigramme/The chemigram. Bruxelles: Edition Racine, 2007.

22.           Crawford, William. Keepers of Light. New York: Morgan and Morgan, 1979.

23.           Du Boise, Kim: I wish that I had continued these and gone in a different direction when I was introduced to them in the 1980s and worked on learning & trying to perfect them for me and some students that I worked with in AL in 1994-95 when I was working on the “third degree”…<grin>  I think my life would be more calm and I would have much more on my walls! I went the silver route and taught at the university & college levels for about a decade, then life changes & loyalty to my alma mater had me leave and move into my own studio full time.  But since it was not enough to live on,  we sold some supplies and did some conservation & rescue work.  Life changed again with the storm of the century, Katrina, and here were are today…in a large (48’x64’) lab that could accommodate lots of workshops as we have two wet labs that are at least 20’ long, and an alt process dim room the same size.  There is also a digital lab that has an Epson 4800 Pro to make large negs!  But, we are so busy trying to make ends meet that we don’t have much time to do any of our own work.  I keep saying “one day” and hope it will happen. As far as your family tree, there was a woman artist who my mentor invited to the university where I was getting my masters of art ed. who did cyanotypes on cloth and made clothes from them.  As someone who was interested in printmaking with a press, I was so excited to see this process lecture and work.  So, I will take a moment sometime after teaching the current online class & the work we have in lab to look up some of my notes from 30+ years ago.  (BTW, when I was in class in AL, my teacher there had been at UNM in Albuquerque with Holly Roberts.  She also encouraged my experimentation to the point of nicknames - Process Princess & Chemical Queen.)

24.           Duvivier, Charles. Le procédé à l'huile en photographie    1931

25.           Enfield, Jill. Photo-Imaging. NY: Watson-Guptill, 2002; Jill Enfield’s Guide to Photographic Alternative Processes, Popular Historical and Contemporary Techniques. Burlington, Massachusetts: Focal Press, 2014.

26.           Eshbaugh, Mark L. Alternative Photography Processes: A Worker’s Guide. Massachusetts: RMR Press, 2006.

27.           Fabbri, Malin

28.           Farber, Richard. Historic Photographic Processes; a Guide to Creating Handmade Photographic Images. NY: Allworth Press, 1998.
29.           Frederick, Peter. Creative Sunprinting. Early Photographic Printing Processes Rediscovered. London: Focal Press, 1980.

30.           Gabriel, Leonard G. Bromoil and transfer – 1930

31.           Galindo, Julio (Mexico City)

32.           Gioffre, Jennifer  (Cornell): Gioffre, Jennifer: My introduction to alt processes was during my undergrad at Tyler School of Art in Philadelphia where I worked closely with Martha Madigan. At that time I became very interested in digital negatives and ziatype and I was forever hooked. Shortly after leaving undergrad I started working at Cornell University where I have been for the past 9 years and have helped to develop their work with digital/alt process courses working in Cyanotype, Van Dyke and Gum. Being in upstate NY I have been quite isolated and without a mentor in alt process. For the most part I have been self-taught and found resources in Keepers of the Light, Christopher James, and then when I got into Gum more recently the two texts that you have put out. THANK YOU! Then I found this list which has been a wonderful resource! Thank you to everyone who has asked and answered questions! It’s great to hear about things that I would not have stumbled upon myself and to have a resource for when things go wrong.Jennifer Gioffre Cornell Ithaca, NY 14853

33.           Glafkides, Pierre. Chimie et Physique Photographiques-1976

34.           Greene, Alan. Primitive Photography, A Guide to Making Cameras, Lenses, and Calotypes. Boston: Focal Press, 2002.

35.           Hafey, John c 1979

36.           Hahn, Betty

37.           Harmon, Clay

38.           Hawkins, G. L. Pigment Printing - The bromoil process from the negative to the transfer - 1933  

39.           Heidtmann, Frank. "Kunstphotographische Edeldruckverfahren Heute" (Chia shared this)

40.           Hirsch, Robert. Photographic Possibilities, 2nd Ed. Boston: Focal Press, 2001 and 3rd Ed. 2009; Transformational Imagemaking, Handmade Photography Since 1960. Massachusetts: Focal Press, 2014.
41.           House, Suda. Artistic Photographic Processes. NY: Amphoto, 1981.
42.           Howell-Koehler, Nancy. Photo Art Processes. Worcester, Mass: Davis Publishing Inc., 1980.
43.           Jäämaa, Ilmari. Young Experimenters and Inventors (Finland)

44.           James, Christopher. The Book of Alternative Photographic Processes, 3rd Ed. Massachusetts: Delmar Cengage, 2016.
45.           Kevers, Jacques: From 1985 till 1988, I followed photography courses at the  "Ecole de photographie de la Ville de Bruxelles" which became in the meantime the "Ecole de photo Agnès Varda". It was not until 1988 that I heard about alt. processes in this school, when a guest photographer named Angelo Camilli, born in Frosinone (Italy) around 1937 and established in Belgium, did a presentation about bromoil, explaining how he succeeded in replacing the long gone non-supercoated papers by Agfa's Brovira. Camilli also founded the "Associazione Pittorialisti Europei", an international non-profit organisation promoting pictorialism and its processes. I attended that same year a bromoil workshop he organized, and still have his 7-pages bromoil manual. After graduation, developments in my professional career didn't allow me to spend much time in lengthy photo processes, and I forgot about bromoil for about 10 years. In the late nineties, work becoming less hectic, I got more time for photography. While looking for a printing frame, I met René Smets who was (and still is) making some beautiful ones. René is a self-taught expert in bromoil, and practicing nearly every early photographic process existing. He got me hooked again, and told me about the Yahoo group "The  InterNETional Society of Bromoilists" founded by the late Gene Laughter (he passed away last February). I also met around that time Roger Kockaerts, who was organizing alt-proc exhibitions in his Brussels-based "atelier pH7" facilities. In addition to online discussions, Gene organised physical meetings  called "Hopperfests". I attended one in 2002  in New Orleans, where I met Maija Mc Dougall,  chair of the UK Bromoil Circle. We deplored the low overseas attendance and decided - with Gene's blessing - to organize a similar event in Europe. I assisted Dennis Atherton from the UK Bromoil Circle in the organization of a first meeting in Amsterdam (The Netherlands) in 2004, and organized on my own the following ones in Leverkusen (Germany - 2006), Brussels (Belgium - 2008) and Paris (France -2010). In conjunction with the Brussels event, I organized an alt-proc. exhibition, with about 30 participants from a dozen countries. René Smets was one of the regular participants in these meetings. We ended up creating a national group meeting several times per year instead of having international events every two years. Picto Benelux started its activities in August 2010. We have now about 50 members, meeting 5-6 times per year, and dealing with all historical processes. Picto Benelux is present on the web (http://www.picto.info <http://www.picto.info/>) and on Facebook (https://www.facebook.com/PictoBenelux/) <https://www.facebook.com/PictoBenelux/)>​.

46.           King, Sandy

47.           King, Terry
48.           Kiss, Bob: My "lineage" is much less impressive than most of the others who have posted.  I remember being very excited while at RIT reading a master's thesis on platinum printing by another student.  At that time I was double majoring in Photo Science and Photo Illustration (a. k. a. the creative side).  Then I assisted in NYC and opened my studio in 1974.  While in NYC my former professor of History and Aesthetics of Photography, Alan Klotz, visited my studio and told me he had obtained funding to open a gallery dedicated to fine art photography named PhotoCollect.  I saw many examples of alt prints at his gallery/sprawling apartment.  I also met someone named Lenny (can't remember his last name), I am guessing around 1980, who was experimenting with using graphic arts direct positive film to make enlarged negatives for pt/pd printing.      I was always fascinated with alt but the pressures of being an advertising and fashion photographer in NYC with regular trips to Paris, Munich, Milan, and London to shoot kept me from doing much more than meeting deadlines.  In 1989 I had a near fatal horse riding accident while in Brazil shooting fashion.  Seven surgeries and three years of physiotherapy gave me pause to rethink my life and I left fashion, NYC, and photography and moved to Barbados.  Soon after arriving I cleaned and printed a collection of negatives made from 1933 to 1970 and fell back in love with photography.  Soon thereafter I bought some paper and chems from Palladio and began making pt/pd prints.  I bought Nadeau's book, then Keepers of the Light and Arentz and read them cover to cover.  Having a background in Photo Science made it easy to understand the technology, chemistry, and procedures.  Then, suddenly, I discovered "The List" and had at my fingertips the knowledge of all you amazing practitioners.  So many people helped me with so many questions and I must especially thank chemist and alt printer, Eric Neilsen, who I met in Dallas and who, to this day, answers my questions from New England. And, of course, I bought every edition of Christopher James' book. And who does not owe an enormous debt to Judy Seigel's WJPFP with articles and how-tos on just about every process under the sun...as it were. Over the last few years I was honored to receive guidance from the late Bob Schramm on uranotype and, as some know, did a video presentation for APIS a few years ago.  So my "family tree" includes great books and great people who were, and continue to be, willing to share their hard earned knowledge on this list.

49.           Kockaerts, Roger - Procédés nobles en photographie: platine-palladium & cyanotype. Editions ph7, Bruxelles, 1993; technologie, Identificatie en c/r technieken van historische procedés. Deel 1:  lichtgevoeligheid van zilverzouten. Editie pH7, Brussel, 1994; technologie, Identificatie en c/r technieken van historische procedés. Deel 2 : lichtgevoeligheid van ijzerzouten. Editie pH7, Brussel, 1994; technologie, Identificatie en c/r technieken van historische procedés Deel 3 : lichtgevoeligheid van chromaatzouten. Editie pH7, 1996; Roger Kockaerts  & Johan Swinnen - De kunst van het fotoarchief. University Press Antwerp. 2009. ISBN: 9789054875406; Since the 1980's I have been involved in alt processes and since the beginning of the 1990's I regularly published (in French and in Flemish) on these techniques. From 1992 to 2008 I was professor of conservation/restoration of photographic emulsiosns at the Antwerp University. From the 1990's to today I manage "atelier pH7"  in Brussels where I practice photographic conservation/restoration and , on a regular base expose international artists practicing alt techniques.

50.           Kouklis, Kerik

51.           Laughter, Gene. Bromoil 101, 6th Edition. Virginia: Self-published, 1999.

52.           Lewis, David. The Art of Bromoil and Transfer. Ontario: David Lewis, 1994?

53.           Loftquist, Hans and Chia: I bought it in Hamburg in 1987 and I remember I was eager to try the "Sandgummidruck". I found very fine sand - in a zoo shop - meant for bird cages. I mixed it with my gum solution and I also tried to spread over my fresh coated gum print. The result was not so much to talk about, but I had fun. 1st ed 1978, 2nd ed 1979 and the 3rd ed (which I have) 1982. It won a Kodak photo book prize 1978 as "bestes Fotolehrbuch ausgezeichnet". ISBN 3-87061-183-9; Berlin Verlag. Very vague recipes, though. He writes: you can add sand to the gelatin wet sized paper… which you have to give one more layer of gelatin - or use a press, or when the gum emulsion is still wet you can use a sieve to spread the sand… He says that the sand stays mostly in the shadows and the deep middle tones after exposure. I don't remember. I think I will try it again some day. Just for the fun of it. I still have some of that fine bird sand…

54.           Lourenco, paula. The main master that I've had (and I think he is the main promoter and teacher of alternative photography in Portugal for the last 20 years) was Luis Pavão. I've learned with him albumen, salted paper, gum, cyanotype, carbon, platinum, emulsions (pop and dop).. With Osterman I've learned wet plate,  and with Simone Choulle daguerreotype

55.           Luna, Nitza (key figure in alt, Puerto Rico)
56.           Madigan, Martha (Tyler School of the Arts)
57.           Mayer, Dr. Emil. Bromoil printing & bromoil transfer – 1923

58.           McDonald, John and Melba Smith Cole. How to Make Old-Time Photos. Blue Ridge Summit: Tab books, 1981.
59.           Mebes, Dr. A. Der Bromöldruck – 1914

60.           Mortensen, William. Print Finishing en – 1938

61.           Moyer, Robin. The founder of Elegant Images, Alan Goodman, was a DuPont Chemist and studied with me at a school I had set up at Glen Echo Park in Maryland, called PhotoWorks. I occasionally taught some alt processes there, but having only had one class in photography in the physics department of the University of North Carolina in 1969 (Taught by Dr. Ross Scroggs), I mostly had to study hard and fast to keep ahead of my exceptionally bright students. Steve Szabo was a friend and Washington Post photojournalist. We both began printing in platinum (no palladium available) about the same time and passed on what we learned from ancient texts to our students. So Steve and I taught each other, often simultaneously discovering stuff. Steve cheated a bit by hanging out with George Tice, but generously shared. And in 1974 we both had our work purchased by the Library of Congress. Alas, Asia called (again) and I left Photoworks in the competent hands of Rhoda Baer and Tico Herrera to jump start my career in photojournalism, leaving Alt Photo behind. I note with great pleasure that PhotoWorks is still thriving with over 20 lecturers and loads of alt-photo. Fast forward to Hong Kong 2010: After reviewing boxes of 8x10 negs circa 1970s, I caught the Platinum bug again and was talked into building a 34 print portfolio of platinum prints (platinum had only once before been exhibited in Hong Kong (Coco Chanel by Douglas Kirkland) An old colleague (mentor) from Time Pix, Bill Pierce, introduced me to master PT/PD printer Carl Weese and Carl graciously answered my relentless stupid questions about things long ago forgotten. I managed to make some passable prints, and we sold half the exhibit over two years, and just recently sold the remaining prints and had to order more chems from B&S to print the missing pix. I don't know what it is like in the world of Alt Photo Process academia, but the world of photojournalism that has been my life for the past 47 years has been one of generous friends, colleagues, and competitors happy to pass on what they know about photography, share their contacts, cameras, lenses, film (or now cards), cars and hotel rooms/tents, even in the midst breaking stories and deadlines. All mentors. All good. Well, mostly good.

62.           Mrhar, Peter. Salt Print, with Descriptions of Orotone, Opalotype, Varnishes. ?: Peter Mrhar, 2014.

63.           Nadeau, Luis. Gum Dichromate and other Direct Carbon Processes. 1987.
64.           Nadeau, Luis. History and Practice of oil and bromoil printing – 1985 <>
65.           Nelson, Mark. Precision Digital Negatives for Silver and Other Alternative Processes. Elgin: Little Joe Press, 2004.

66.           Nettles, Bea. Breaking the Rules, A Photo Media Cookbook. Inky Press Productions, 3rd Ed, 1992.
67.           Newman, Thelma R. Innovative Printmaking, The Making of Two– and Three-Dimensional Prints and Multiples. New York: Crown Publishers, 1977.

68.           Novo, Alberto: Alberto: my very first contact with alt-print were two issues of "Progresso Fotografico" November and December 1978 dealing with what were called "New Trends". There were recipes about POP prints, Platinum, Palladium, Carbon, Kallitype, Bromoil, Daguerreotype, Calotype, Tonings, Resinotype, Gum Bichromate, etc. Pictures from Demachy, Steiche, Sudek, Neal, Nadeau, Penn, Tice, Echague, Batho, Pinto, Mortensen, ..., Cordier, Brihat, Sudre. I was interested in everything was alternative to the traditional way to print a picture. I already printed Sabattier, posterization, embossing and their combination, but those examples were really different and captivating. I missed my darkroom for about ten years and I coudn't continue my experiments, but in 1998 I found a booklet titled Manuale Antiche Tecniche (Manual of Old Techniques) printed in 1994 collecting the experiences of the newborn Gruppo Rodolfo Namias. In a year I started printing gum bichromate, salt print, Van Dyke and cyanotype. I had two my solo exhibition in 2000 "On the Thread of a Dream" and in 2001 "From PC to Salt Print", etc. In 2001 I joined the Rodolfo Namias Group... and you know the following.

69.           Osterman, Mark and France

70.           paulacdlourenco at gmail.com <mailto:paulacdlourenco at gmail.com> Paula in Portugal; Pavão, Luis (Portugal) albumen, salted paper, gum, cyanotype, carbon, platinum, emulsions (pop and dop).. 

71.           Persinger, Tom. Photography Beyond Technique. Massachusetts: Focal Press, 2014.

72.           Porkkala, Jalo. Köyhä Dagerrotyyppi. vaihtoehtoisia valokuvamenetelmiaä. Satakunnanammattikorkeakoulu, 2012. The first time I heard about alternative photographic processes was sometime in late 1970's... there was the wonderful Swiss Camera magazine showing palladium and albumen prints, and in 1980 I mail ordered my copy of the Keepers of Light. One of my fellow photography students made gum prints as his graduation work in 1979... a brave and beautiful thing that we all admired as none of these processes were taught in photographers' education at that time, and not largely since. I started my work as a museum photographer, and in early 1980's taught myself some processes to print glass negatives from 1880's-1920's, including printing-out paper and others. I learned cyanotype and platinum/palladium from the Keepers of Light. Another great source of information for me was Nancy Rexroth's The Platinotype 1977. There was also George Tice's workshop on Pt/Pd in Finland in early 1980's, this process was the next thing I wanted to do. Since I am in Finland it was next to impossible to buy chemicals for platinum printing. I managed to order some from Photographers' Formulary and Bostick & Sullivan... there was no internet and I especially remember some late night phone calls (best business hours in the US) to Dick Sullivan to order chemicals. :) In 1990's I started working as a photography teacher at an art school. I did some classes of basic photography, but also wanted to familiarize the students with alternative processes. They were accepted with enthusiasm, and we gradually did them more and more. There were alt-photo classes of several weeks at Satakunta University of Applied Sciences in 1995 and 2008, and a few weeks slot of alt processes each year remained in the curriculum. In 2006 at the Satakunta University we started Project Vedos, studying numerous alt-processes and visiting collections at museums in Europe and USA, and also participating in the APIS symposium in 2007 and 2009 in Santa Fe. The Vedos ended in 2015 which also was the year of my retirement from the teaching work. The project actually made it possible to produce the first book of alt processes in Finland. In 2011 I participated in Mike Robinson's Daguerreotype workshop in Lacock, England, and have been totally hooked since. Regarding alt processes, I'm only doing daguerreotypes for now, and giving occasional workshops on other processes. –Jalo

73.           Puyo, Constant. Les procédés d'Art en Photographie – 1931; Les procédés aux encres grasses. Huile & Report 1926

74.           Rattle, Henry.(Crawford’s book)

75.           Reed, Martin, and Sarah Jones. Silver Gelatin-A User’s Guide to Liquid Photographic Emulsions. New York: Amphoto Books, 2001.

76.           Reeder, Ron

77.           Reeve, Catharine and Marilyn Sward. The New Photography. NJ: Prentice Hall, 1986.
78.           Reilly, James. The Albumen and Salted Paper Book: The History and Practice of Photographic Printing, 1840–1895. Rochester: Light Impressions Corp., 1980.

79.           Renner, Eric. Pinhole Photography; Rediscovering an Historic Technique. Boston: Focal Press, 1995.

80.           Rexer, Lyle. Photography’s Antiquarian Avant-Garde. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 2002.
81.           Rombaut, Emile. L'Interprétation Artistique par la Photographie  

82.           Rudman, Tim. The Master Photographer’s Lith Printing Course. New York: Amphoto Books, 1999; The World of Lith Printing. London: Argentum, 2006;The Photographer’s Toning Book. The Definitive Guide. NY: Amphoto, 2003.

83.           Sanderson, Andrew. Handcoloring and Alternative Darkroom Processes. Switzerland: Rotovision, 2002.
84.           Schaefer, John P. The Ansel Adams Guide, Basic Techniques of Photography, Book 2. Boston: Little Brown and Company, 1998.

85.           Schreiber, Keith

86.           Scopick, David. The Gum Bichromate Book, Non-Silver Methods for Photographic Printmaking, 2nd ed. Boston: Focal Press, 1991 (also 1st Ed. 1978).
87.           Seigel, Judy, editor. The World Journal of Post-Factory Photography. New York: Post Factory Press, editor at post–factory.org
88.           Shilea, Tom c 1979

89.           Skupin-Burkholder, Jill

90.           Smigiel, Joe: Kodak's Creative Darkroom Techniques from the early 70s and that actually predated Skopick and Keepers of Light by a few years. In terms of wetplate collodion, I believe the modern lineage should include George Berkhofer and John Hurlock (John Brewer agrees). I'm not sure about this, but I think they were mentors to John Coffer who got the ball rolling in the re-enactor scene. Later, I found the Osterman's "Collodion Journal" though it took at least a decade for me to investigate that process further and finally take a workshop first with one of their students, Michael Mazzeo, and shortly afterward with John Coffer. The recent collodion forum of Bob Szabo and Quinn Jacobson was also very important in the wetplate revival. Other alt influences for me included Elizabeth Opalenik who was a protégé of Jean-Pierre Sudre in mordançage. In addition to the texts you've already mentioned, Nadeau's and Dick Sullivan's publications were helpful in other areas and Dick Arentz's book clarified Platinum printing for me. Judy's WJPFP, too. And Sandy King should be mentioned in the context of carbon printing among his other contributions. This list was a gift and exponentially increased my knowledge base and contacts.

91.           Stevens, S. Gayle

92.           Sullivan, Richard: I learned much from a man named Jack MacDonald, who ran a school of alt photography in Inglewood Ca. in approx 1968. Jack taught at Mortensen's School in Laguna Beach Ca that goes back to the 20's or at least the 30's. Jack was working in many processes and teaching them as well. Melody and I officially hung out our single in 1980 selling pt and pd materials but I was working much earlier in Kallitype, even before I met MacDonald and then when I started selling pt and pd material there were a handful of older and a few existing  younger workers in platinum. I was doing gum in 1967 but there were others lurking about. I think what the critical link is being able to get materials. As for platinum etc, the early modern source was Elegant Images which existed for several years. They went defunct and then we hung out our shingle and  for a few months or so there was a company called Blue Mountain supplies or something like that. (I am at an age were when I learn something new I have to forget something old, and I've learned a lot of new things lately!) Of course the keystone issue holding up the modern renaissance in early processes was Keeper of Light. Big industry is and was a problem. Just checked a company on the price of quinacridone magenta. Minimum order 50 lbs at $6,000.00. You can either buy a little bit at a very high price or a whole lot but not much in between.--Dick Sullivan I believe he was the one who wrote it. It was written after I studied with him which was in the early 70's. The book you mention  is 1981. As for learning old processes my favorite haunt for info was the UCLA research library. In that time, you needed a stack pass to get to the books and to get one you needed to be a grad student. I noticed there was a "Door Nazi" guarding entrance to the stacks and the key was a library card with the work "Stack" stamped in inch high letters on the back. So I got a big gum eraser, borrowed a friends card and traced the word onto my eraser and stamped my card. Ooops.I just failed printmaking 101. It came out backwards so I had to get another card and do it all over again. The second one worked like a charm. Once past the Door Nazi  with my forged pass I would find the photography section and sit on the floor and browse the books and make copies at a nickel a page. This was in the late 60's. The copy machines were not modern Xerox style but made some sepia  prints that hand a pervasive sulfur stink. My notebook got rilly big. I loaned it to a student of mine at Brooks who was doing her masters in alt processes. She had to have an adjunct professor as no one at Brooks knew squat about platinum and gum etc, and she found me. She was supposed to pay me but since I was getting a free research assistant I didn't charge her. My precious book of stinky copies disappeared to Australia as she suddenly had to go home as her father was dying I never heard from her again or my book. Weird. Never mind the book, I now have over 750,000 pages of old books and journals in my indexed archive that is  Regex searchable. As odd as it sounds, Brooks was a hotbed of alt photography in the 80's and 90's. Brooks was known for no nonsense technical craft, there was a healthy underground movement there -- they even had a "Fine Art Club" that I would drive up from LA to Santa Barbara and give lecture and demo to the club once in a while. Early on in the early 1980's  I had Nitza Luna as a student who was also working on her Masters at Brooks. She is now heading up the photography department in San Juan Puerto Rico at Colegio Universtario del Sagrado Corazon [Sacred Heart University. Also known as USC!] I give the full name as much online about her is in Spanish. If anyone is interested in Caribbean workers in alt, she is the key figure. Nitza is also in both the Platypus Portfolios of the early 1980's. In the Spanish speaking world there is also Julio Galindo in Mexico City who is also key to infecting people with our disease. 

93.           Taylor, Brian. “Places of Magic” in Darkroom Photography Dec 1987, 30–37.
94.           Taylor, Keith

95.           Tilney, F. C. Principles of photographic pictorialism – 1930

96.           Valentino, Laura: My intro to alt was from a random stranger on a usenet group back in the mid-90s. The funny thing is that I was not even doing photography at the time, I was doing vector artwork on the computer and was looking for a way to print onto fine art paper. Someone suggested gum bichromate of all things (why not silkscreen?). Whoever it was (wish I knew today) said it's cool because you develop in water and you can use any color, even metallic gouache colors like silver and gold. I was intrigued so I googled (or webcrawled) and found the alt photo website and this list. I did a few attempts at gum (using a single blacklight bulb) but didn't really get going until much later, when I took a 5-day alt sampler class at Central Saint Martins in London. Finally some hands-on experience and the inspiration to come back home and get serious. But this list, and Christina's book is where I mostly got my alt education. And many failed attempts.

97.           Van Keuren, Sarah. A Non Silver Manual. Cyanotype, Brownprint, Palladium, and Gum Bichromate with Instructions for Making Light Resists Including Pinhole Photography. Landsdowne, PA: 1999.
98.           Wade, Kent. Alternative Photographic Processes. NY: Morgan and Morgan, 1978.
99.           Walker, Melanie

100.        Walker, Todd

101.        Wang, Sam. Four Decades of Photographic Explorations. China: Jiangsu Arts, 2010.
102.        Wanless, Marydorsey

103.        Ward, Nowell. Picture making with paper negatives – 1938

104.        Ware, Mike. Gold in Photography, The History and Art of Chrysotype. Brighton: Ffotoffilm publishing, 2006; Ware, Mike. Mechanisms of Image Deterioration in Early Photographs. London: Science Museum, 1994. Cyanotype.

105.        Webb, Randall & Martin Reed, Spirits of Salts – 1999; Alternative Photographic Processes: A Working Guide for Imagemakers. NY: Silver Pixel Press, 2000.

106.        Whalley, Geoffrey E. Bromoil and transfer-1961

107.        Wilks, Brady. Alternative Photographic Processes: Crafting Handmade Images. NY: Focal Press, 2015.
108.        Willems, Eddy: I studied photography in Brussels (1970) and there I never heard about alt photo. years later we wanted to start gum but we where not able to find the necessary products during a visit at the royal photography society in bath UK (1988), Hope Kingsley showed us the collection and told about her work in alt photography, she was so kind to teach us in the SASK Tassel Belgium a workshop of a week in alt (1989); everyday she showed us an other technique. that was the start of my involvement in alt and since that week we worked on a regular base with the students with different techniques we had also a college with the gum printers jean janssis and roland castro to printers with a very different approach we had also 2 students who made there final presentation in alt one with gum and the other in salt prints (karel van gerven who participate in the new salt book of christina)

109.        Worobiec, Tony and Ray Spence. Beyond Monochrome, A Fine Art Printing Workshop. London: Surrey Fountain Press, 1999.
110.        Young, Ellie. The Salt Print Manual, An Historic Photographic Print Process. Victoria: Goldstreet Studios, 2011.

111.        Zielke, Willy. Technik des Bromöl-Umdruckes - 1931 (reprint 1988)

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